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Understanding the Role of Pregnancy Hormones in Your Journey to Motherhood

March 26, 2024

March 26, 2024

Pregnancy can be a mixed bag of emotions. While you are excited to become a mother, you also face many changes that can be difficult on your mind and body.

One of the major causes of these changes is hormones. As you progress in your pregnancy, your body produces different hormones to support the growth of your baby. These hormones have different effects on pregnancy and your mood.

In this article, we will look at different hormones you can expect and how to support your body to ensure you are safe and happier.

Hormones Released During Pregnancy

The hormonal changes during pregnancy regulate the physiological and emotional changes experienced by expectant mothers. The key hormones are estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), prolactin, and oxytocin.


Estrogen is often referred to as the “queen of hormones” during pregnancy. It promotes fetal growth and development and prepares your body for childbirth.


This is known as the “hormone of pregnancy”. Progesterone plays a crucial role in maintaining the uterine lining and preventing premature contractions. This supports the viability of the pregnancy.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

This hormone is produced by the placenta. You may be wondering how long after implantation does hcg rise. A few days after implantation. This is why It is used to detect pregnancy in early-stage tests. It supports the corpus luteum in producing progesterone during the first trimester to ensure the continuation of your pregnancy until the placenta takes over.


As pregnancy progresses, prolactin levels rise in preparation for breastfeeding. It does this by stimulating milk production in the mammary glands.


This is the “love hormone”. Oxytocin plays an important role in the bonding between you and your baby. It also facilitates uterine contractions during childbirth and supports breastfeeding.

Hormonal Milestones Throughout Pregnancy

The journey through your pregnancy has distinct hormonal milestones. These milestones are trimesters. Each trimester has a different physical and emotional experience for expectant mothers.

First Trimester

This trimester has the most hormonal changes. This can cause different symptoms, such as morning sickness and mood swings. These changes show your body’s adjustment to the presence of a growing embryo.

Second Trimester

At this stage, hormone levels stabilize. This stability gives you a period of relative calm. Fetal development progresses with fewer physical symptoms and discomfort.

Third Trimester

As the due date approaches, hormones increase to prepare your body for childbirth. Oxytocin levels rise. This rise initiates contractions and signals the onset of labor. You experience emotional changes and hormonal fluctuations that intensify as the anticipation of motherhood grows.

How Hormones Affect Mood Swings

Pregnancy is often accompanied by an increase in emotions. Fluctuating hormone levels partially caused this. If you understand the link between the two, you might be able to manage your emotions better.

Some coping strategies for managing mood swings during pregnancy include:

  • Practicing self-care
  • Seeking support from loved ones
  • Communicating openly with healthcare providers about any concerns regarding your emotional well-being.

Different Hormones and Some Expected Moods

Estrogen is often associated with feelings of euphoria, energy, and optimism. However, during certain periods of pregnancy, estrogen levels can fluctuate. This can cause you to experience mood swings, irritability, or emotional sensitivity.

Progesterone is known for its calming effects and is often associated with feelings of relaxation and contentment. However, when the levels are high during pregnancy, you may feel fatigued, moody, and have occasional anxiety.

In the early stages of your pregnancy, high hCG levels can trigger excitement and joy, as well as anxiety and apprehension. These mood swings are often high during the first trimester.

Oxytocin levels rise, fostering a deep sense of attachment between mum and baby. However, oxytocin also triggers uterine contractions during labor, which can lead to feelings of anxiety or apprehension as childbirth approaches.

Hormonal Changes to Expect After Childbirth

Hormones continue to play an important role in the postpartum period. After childbirth, estrogen and progesterone levels drop rapidly. The sudden decline triggers lactation and the contraction of the uterus to its pre-pregnancy size.

Prolactin levels increase dramatically after childbirth to stimulate milk production in the mammary glands.

During pregnancy, cortisol levels increase to support the demands of gestation. After childbirth, cortisol levels gradually return to baseline, although the postpartum period can be accompanied by increased stress and fatigue as mothers adapt to the demands of caring for a newborn.

Thyroid hormone levels may fluctuate after childbirth, particularly in women with preexisting thyroid conditions or postpartum thyroiditis. These hormonal changes can affect energy levels, mood, and metabolism.

Endorphins, often referred to as “feel-good” hormones, are released. These natural opioids alleviate pain, promote relaxation, and enhance feelings of well-being and euphoria.

These hormone changes can cause postpartum depression and anxiety. Recognizing the signs and seeking timely support is important to protect your mental well-being.

4 Things You Can Do To Support Your Mind and Body

Understanding how to support your body during pregnancy can help you enjoy this magical time. Here are a few tips to help you through the hormonal changes.

Prioritize Self-Care and Rest

Take the time to rest and recharge. High progesterone levels, coupled with the energy your body uses for fetal growth, will cause fatigue. Support your body with enough sleep, get pregnancy massages, and try some creative expressions like painting or writing.

Maintaining a Balanced Diet

A nutritious diet rich in essential nutrients can help support hormonal balance and promote optimal fetal development.

Foods to Add to Your Diet
  • Fruits and leafy vegetables
  • Constantly hydrate with water, not sugary drinks.
  • Iron-rich foods such as lentils, spinach, and fish
  • Folate- or folic acid-rich foods such as grains and citrus fruits
Stay Active

Regular exercise can aid in hormonal regulation, alleviate stress, and promote overall health during pregnancy. You can try low-impact exercises such as walking, swimming, prenatal yoga, or swimming. Always talk to your doctor first. Exercise helps improve circulation, reduce stress, and prepare your body for childbirth.

Communication with Healthcare Providers

Have open communication with your doctor about hormonal concerns. This allows for timely intervention and support tailored to your individual needs.

By understanding the role of hormones during your pregnancy and caring for yourself, you can enjoy pregnancy a lot more while staying safe. Remember to take it slow and support your mind and body.

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